Mechanical TransductionEdit

external earEdit

  • external auditory meatus
  • eardrum

medial earEdit

  • hammer
  • anvil
  • stirrup

inner earEdit

bony labyrinth membranous labyrinth endolymph


  • scala vestibuli
  • scala media
    • basilar membrane
      • inner hair cells
      • outer hair cells
    • tectorial membrane
  • scala tympani


  • utricle
  • saccule

semicircular canalsEdit

  • horizontal
  • anterior vertical
  • posterior vertical

Neural TransductionEdit


cochlear nerveEdit

cochlear nucleusEdit

  • dorsal
  • anteroventral
  • posteroventral

superior oliveEdit

  • medial superior olive
  • lateral superior olive

lateral lemniscusEdit

inferior colliculusEdit

medial genticulate nucleusEdit

primary auditory cortexEdit

vestibular systemEdit

vestibular ganglionEdit

vestibular nucleiEdit

  • superior
  • medial
  • lateral
  • descending

other contributing structuresEdit

  • optic tract
  • supplementing cortical systems


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